Authorities, institutions in news
This article gives details about important authorities which were in news in 2018 along with the backgrounders, which are important for UPSC preliminary examination
National Security Guard
Senior IPS officer Sudeep Lakhtakia was appointed as new Director General of National Security Guard (NSG). He succeeded SP Singh
NSG is a Federal Contingency Deployment Force under Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) raised in 1984, following operation Blue Star and the assassination of Indira Gandhi, with a view to protect States against internal disturbances and terrorism. It is not categorised under uniform nomenclature of Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF).
It has Special Forces mandate and its core operational capability is provided by Special Action Group (SAG) drawn from Indian Army. NSG personnel are often referred as Black Cats because of black dress and black cat insignia worn on their uniform.
The NSG is trained to conduct counter terrorist task to including counter hijacking tasks on land, sea, and air, bomb disposal and Post Blast Investigation (PBI) and hostage rescue missions. It is intended for use only in exceptional situations and not meant to take over functions of State Police Forces or other Para Military Forces.
In news: Prasar Bharati (PB) turned down a resolution moved by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (I&B) to appoint a serving IAS officer to its board, and also deferred its proposal to bring in professionals to head the news service units of Doordarshan and All India Radio.
Prasar Bharati is a statutory autonomous body established under the Prasar Bharati Act and came into existence on November 23, 1997. It is the Public Service Broadcaster of the country. The objectives of public service broadcasting are achieved in terms of Prasar Bharati Act through All India Radio and Doordarshan, which earlier were working as media units under the Ministry of I&B and since the above said date became constituents of Prasar Bharati.
The PB Act states that the President of India will appoint the Board members, decided by a selection committee, which is headed by the Vice President of India and includes the Chairman of the Press Council of India and a nominee of the President.
The Ministry does not have a direct role in appointment of the chairman and whole-time members of the Board.
National Commission For Minority Educational Institutions
In news: Supreme Court has held that National Commission for Minority Education Institutions (NCMEI) has original jurisdiction to determine an establishment as a minority education institution.
National Commission for Minority Educational Institutions under the Ministry of Human Resource Development was established to protect and safeguard the educational institutions which are established by the religious minorities in India. It is a statutory body established by National Commission for Minority Educational Institutions Act (NCMEI Act), 2004. This also ensures rights of religious minorities to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice as provided in the Article 30 of the Constitution of India. Linguistic Minorities do not come under the ambit of the NCMEI Act, 2004
The Commission is composed of a Chairman and three other members.
- The Chairman should have been a judge of High Court and must belong to a minority community.
- The members shall also belong to a minority community and are persons of eminence, ability and integrity.
The Commission is a quasi-judicial authority which has been endowed with the powers of a civil court.
Only Supreme Court exercising writ jurisdiction under Article 32 and High Courts under Articles 226 and 227 of the Constitution of India can entertain any suit, application or proceedings in respect of any order made by the Commission.
The Commission has adjudicatory and recommendatory functions such as:
- to advise the Central Government and the State Governments on any question relating to the educational rights of the minorities referred to it.
- enquire, suomotu, or on a petition presented to it by any Minority Educational Institution, or any person on its behalf into complaints regarding deprivation or violation of rights of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice and any dispute relating to affiliation to a University.
- review the safeguards provided by or under the Constitution, or any law for the time being in force, for the protection of educational rights of the minorities and recommend measures for their effective implementation.
- specify measures to promote and preserve the minority status and character of institutions of their choice established by minorities.
- make recommendations to the appropriate Government for the effective, implementation of programmes and schemes relating to the Minority Educational Institutions.
The Commission has also been granted appellate jurisdiction in cases where the State Government refused to provide the NOC for establishing a minority institution.
Constitutional safeguards for Minorities in India
Article 29 (1) – Any section of the citizen residing in the territory of India or any part thereof having a distinct language, script or culture of his own shall have right to conserve the same.
Article 29 (2) – No citizen shall be denied admission into any educational institution maintained by the state or receiving aid out of state funds on grounds only of religion, race, caste, language or any of them.
Article 30 – All minorities whether based on religion or language shall have the right to establish and administer educational institution of their choice.
Article 30 (1) – The compensation amount fixed by the state for the compulsory acquisition of any property of a minority educational institution shall not restrict or abrogate the right guaranteed to them.
Article 30 (2) – In granting aid, the state shall not discriminate against any educational institution managed by a minority.